,_Athanasius,_De_synodis_Arimini_in_Italia_et_Seleuciae_in_Isauria_[Schaff],_EN.pdf   p947-950.   Arius would not use the word ‘time’ when referring to eternity.,_Athanasius,_De_synodis_Arimini_in_Italia_et_Seleuciae_in_Isauria_[Schaff],_EN.pdf   p947-950.
Sabellianism is Modalism, a belief that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God, rather than three distinct persons.
The History of the First Council of Nice:  A World Christian Convention.       Dean Dudley. Ch 5.
Alexander was known as the ‘pope’ well before it was used by the Pope of Rome.  It is a Greek word, not a Latin one.  The Historic Church: An Orthodox View of Christian History Archpriest John W Morris p54.
Arius the Man by Ian Elmer, a Catholic writer of
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Ch II. Ch 21.  Quoted in The History of the First Council of Nice. Dean Dudley. Footnote p39.

Chapter 6     Before Nicaea       

I am indebted to Dean A.P. Stanley for the information in this book.  This is the book the Lord used to give me the enthusiasm to begin to study the subject all over again.  His list of who attended the council is excellent.  Much is taken from his book in this chapter, as he lists those who went to the council.  Others do too, but this was the book in my hand at the time.

Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church p117. Dean A.P. Stanley.
Ibid p117.118.   (Iznik is now the name of Nicaea)

Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. Stanley. Lecture iii. Par 22.
Ibid p129.
Ibid p131.132.
Tillemont. Vi 688. Comp Lecture IV.
Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. Dean A.P. Stanley. p139.  
Ibid.    History of the Byzantine Empire.  Alexander A Vasiliev p85.   
Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church p142.
Lectures. Stanley. p143.
Lectures. Stanley. p141.
Lectures. Stanley. p127.

T + IH = 300 + 10 + 8 = 318.    In 2nd century Christian writings there is evidence that the Greek letter tau (T) could represent the cross of Jesus.  The number 318 can be expressed in Greek letters as TIH:  the tau (T), the Greek symbol for 300;  the iota  (l) for ten;  and the eta (η) for the number eight.  From some of our earliest Christian manuscripts we know that the first two letters of the name Ἰησοῦς (Iēsous) was an ancient Christian abbreviation of Jesus’ name – IH.  From: Texts and Artifacts in the Religions of Mediterranean Antiquity. Michel Desjardins. Peter Richardson. Stephen G Wilson. Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion. p280     

Also found in

Lectures. Stanley. p146.76.
Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church.

Chapter 7     Council of Nicaea     

The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol 12. The Crisis of Empire. Alan Bowman. Peter Gamsey.  Averil Cameron. p98.  Quote with 45 of Eusebius.
Ibid p149.  The Two Republics. A.T. Jones p344.345.  Taken from History of the Eastern Church by Stanley.  Lect iii. Par 22


We do not know where each sat, and in fact, it was then a dispute as to which side was the most important.  Some say Hosius presided over the council, which is certainly possible.  He was sitting next to the Emperor.

Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. A.P. Stanley. p151. Two Republics. A. T. Jones p345.346.
Lectures.  Stanley.  p153.
Ibid p154. 
Ibid p154. 
Easter is a German word.
Easter and Passover dates.

All were using the Julian calendar, introduced in 46BC.   During the 16th century, the Julian calendar was superseded by the Gregorian calendar, and although it took some time for countries to adopt it (Greece did not until the 20th century), it did take place.  However, the Greek Orthodox Church continues to use the Julian calendar for its calculations of Easter, as does the Russian Orthodox Church.

The 6th Canon confirmed  by Melitius and Metropolitans  whatever ancient privileges they had possessed over the Bishops in their respective provinces.  In this Canon we see the first germ of the yet undeveloped Patriarchates of the East; and, in the one precedent selected for such a jurisdiction, we see the organisation already formed of what was to become the Patriarchate of the West.  “This”, the council says, “is to be laid down as is the custom in the parallel case of the Bishop of Rome.”  Lectures.Stanley p182.
Some historians speak of 18, others of 22, however, 25 names have been recorded. 

Theophilus was at the council, believed to be representing the Gothic Church on the Cimmerian Bosphorus.   Before his signature were the words ‘de Gothis’ and after it the word ‘Bophoritanus’. He was probably one of those men who did not fully understand the debate of the council, as his faith was simple and true.   A number of writers say Eusebius of Caesara was also an admirer of Origen.
Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. p155.
Saint Athanasius, the Father of Orthodoxy. F.A. Forbes. Christianity Today. Article Athanasius.
These are all based on reports and writings of those who were there, but made into a narrative.

Athanasius had asked if Arius used the word ‘superior’ for the Father and he said ‘No’, however, it is used in his song.  Obviously he is struggling for words, as he is saying that only a ‘father’ can give birth to a son, and the father in that sense is greater.  Jesus used the  word  ‘greater’  for His Father.   We must also remember that this poem  was kept  in the  hands of Athanasius  throughout history  and we do not know if words have been added or not.  According to many Catholic writers of the past, words have been changed to favour the Catholic or bias, or to put Arians in a bad light.   So we must understand this aspect of the controversy.

The Christian Examiner. Vol 11.12. p327.  From Arius the Libyan. Nathan Kouns.
Nicolas, Bishop of Myra.

Many say that Nicolas was not at the council, however, it is recorded that he gave his blow to Arius at the council.   The interesting part is that this bishop was the bishop who became Saint Nicolas or Santa Claus.   Over and over again he is mentioned as being Father Christmas and he will not give presents to Arius.  Look up the Catholic site:  You will see cartoons of Santa, with Arius in a very bad light – after all these years.   I believe that when the Pope dresses up as Santa at Christmas time he is giving a message – ‘I won’t give any blessings to heretics.’   The Papacy does nothing without a hidden reason.

Lectures of the Eastern Churches. Stanley. p144. › ... › Life of Constantine (Eusebius)

The word homoousios/homoousion can be interpreted three ways.  First, it could be generic; of one substance could be said of two individual men, both of whom share human nature while remaining individuals. Second, it could signify numerical identity, that is, that the Father and the Son are identical in concrete being.  Finally, it could refer to material things, as two pots are of the same substance because both are made of the same clay.  Davis 1987, 61. 

The Council intended the first meaning to stress the equality of the Son with the Father. If the second meaning for the word was taken to be the Council's intention it would mean that the Father and Son were identical and indistinguishable - clearly a Sabellian heresy.  The third meaning gave the word a materialistic tendency that would infer that the Father and Son are parts of the same stuff. Along with these possible misunderstandings of the meaning of the word homoousios, the history of the word is closely associated with heresies. The word was originally used by the Gnostics. The word had even been condemned at the Council of Antioch in AD268 regarding its use by the Adoptionist Paul of Samosata.

All the conversation between the Athanasian party is imaginary, but based on fact.  We know there was much discussion between them before the decision was made.  The First Great Christian Creed. John. A. Faulkner p59. 
Two Republics. A.T. Jones p349.
History of the Eastern Church. par 29.  Two Republics. Jones p348. › Catholic Encyclopaedia 

The word ‘Catholic’ in this instance does not mean the Roman Catholic Church, but the universal Christian Church as was represented at Nicaea.  It should have had lower case.

The word in the creed is homoousion, a noun, the masculine form of the word, but when saying the Son is one substance with the Father, homoousios is the spelling used.  This is the primary word.  The break up is homo = same; homoi (or homeo) = similar.  ousia = being (as a noun) or substance.

According to Truth Triumphant, Constantine asked Hosius, and he is the one who replies, ‘They are both alike’. Truth Triumphant p92.  He cites Ecclesiastical Researchers. Robinson. p183. Others say it was the Emperor.
If the Greek word Homoousion had an 'i' added, it would make the word homoiousion, ‘like substance’, which was acceptable to the Arians, although they did not need any word added at all.    Chapter 14.

Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognius of Nicaea were also banished later for their indecision and objections.  They were recalled from banishment when Constantia died and Arius was recalled.  All banished Arians were freed by Constantine.  Letter from Constantine to Eusebius.  

Lectures. Stanley p188.189.  Remember, two were banished and two died, leaving 314 of the original 318.
Lectures. Stanley p188.189.    Life of Constantine. Bk 3. Ch 21.
Lectures. Stanley p191.
Lectures. Stanley p188-191. 

Remember, the two bishops who died also signed the decree from their graves!!  The total thus remains at 316, with two abstaining.



Lectures of the History of the Eastern Church p68.
A History of the Creeds and Confessions of Faith if Christendom. p68.
The Four Councils.  J.W.D. Wand p12. Quoted by Ronald Hanko.  
Book of Common Prayer p58.  This is an Anglican Prayer book.  The word Catholic is believed to be by the Anglican, universal.  It does not refer to the Catholic Church and should have been in lower case.
The Trinitarian Theology of Dr Samuel Clarke (1675-1729) by Thomas C. Pfzenmaier. p5. Note No.IV.   Article of religion No. VIII.
Letter to James Smith. Thomas Jefferson. Dec 89. 1822.
Ask for book ‘The Connection’ for evidence that this is true.  
Removing the Pillar p104. Margaretha Tierney.  Taken from Walter Martin – Taped Conference at Campus Hill, Loma Linda. January 1989.
Arius and the deity of Christ.

It is believed by every Trinitarian that if Christ had a beginning, He could not be divine or deity. They believe that to be divine, God needed to be eternal without beginning. They do not consider that a Son born of God would have the same nature as His Father.   If the Father is divine, the Son would be divine.   If the father is human, the son will be human.We understand the human side of it, but when it comes to God, it cannot be considered.   So, for those who accept Nicaea, the debate is whether Christ is divine or not divine, not so much whether He had a beginning.   It means the same to them.  We do not understand fully what Arius believed, but we know that most who believe Christ had a beginning at some point in eternity today, also believe that He is the divine Son of God, as much deity as His Father.  Of course, there are those who believe Christ was not divine, however, their belief does not come into the scope of this book.  Hence the need to get rid of them.
Romanism and the Reformation p159.
Douay Catechism. ‘An Abridgement of the Christian Doctrine’ by Dr Henry Tuberville. 1649.

Yes, the Pope is a man, but not a single man per se.  The prophecy is of a succession of men that began during the early centuries in Rome, and will  continue until the Catholic system is destroyed in the seven last plagues.  Daniel 7:26.  Revelation    17:11-17.  Revelation 16:12-21.  18:4-24.

Pope Pius V, quoted in Barclay. Chapter XXCII. p218. Cities Petrus Bertanous.
Catholic National. July 1895.   (AD858-857)

The New York Catholic Catechism stated, “The Pope takes the place of Jesus Christ on earth... God himself on earth.”  Barclay Cap. XXVII, p. 218. Cities Petrus Bertrandus, Pius V. - Cardinal Cusa supports his statement.  On the Authority of the Councils, book 2, chapter 17.

"All names which in the Scriptures are applied to Christ, by virtue of which it is established that He is over the church, all the same names are applied to the Pope.”

Pope Nicholas I declared: “The appellation of God had been confirmed by Constantine on the Pope, who, being God, cannot be judged by man.”    Labb IX Dist.: 96 Can. 7. Satis evidentur, Decret Gratian Primer Para. 

“…the Pope is of so great dignity and so exalted that he is not a mere man, but as it were God, and the vicar of God… He is likewise the divine monarch and supreme emperor, king of kings… moreover the superiority and the power of the Roman Pontiff by no means pertain only to heavenly things, to earthly things, and to things under the earth, but are even over angels, than whom he is greater… so that if it were possible that the angels might err in the faith, or might think contrary to the faith, they could be judged and excommunicated by the pope.”  Lucius Ferraris. Prompta Bibliothece. Art ‘Papa’ II. Vol VI pp26-29.  The Catholic Encyclopaedia refers to this book as “a veritable encyclopaedia of religious knowledge” and “a precious mine of information.”      

Romanism and the Reformation p159. 
The Quotable Newman: A Definitive Guide to His Central Thoughts and Ideas    By John Henry Newman, Dave Armstrong



There are interesting points in this Bibliography that would be helpful to read, as they are further information on the point at hand.   The references have been separated from the quotations, so they can be seen easily.   The Bibliography has no numbers.  Unfortunately this is the way it came out on the site.   If you want to look up a particular reference, highlight the quote and put it into Google. It will give a number of choices.   The Bibliography on this site will simply be for the information, and to show that there has been research!   The book is clearer in this aspect as there are numbers.

History of the World Christian Movement: Earliest Christianity to 1453. Vol 1. p180. Dale T Irvin. Scott Sunquist.
Paraphrased for Arius the Libyan p108-116.
Paraphrased from Arius the Libyan p117.
Arius the Libyan p121.
Two Republics by A.T. Jones. p258.259.
Socrates, Church History 1.9.30 and Gelasius, Church History 2.36.1.  Athanasius, Defense of the Nicene Definition 39
History of the Inquisition. Philippus van Limborch. Vol 1-3. p11.

Two Republics p 260.  The last two sentences in the quotation are from a credible historian, ‘Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church’ by Stanley, which is the book I purchased.  However, I cannot find the words.  It is also quoted in Great Empires of Bible Prophecy p437.   
Two Republics p342.
Arius the Libyan p120.

Chapter 1    Ye shall be Witnesses      

Truth Triumphant. B.G. Wilkinson. p337.
“The Celts were descendants of Gomer, the grandson of Noah.  The race extended from Scythia across Central Europe and as far west as Ireland.”  

Go to websites to see the connection with Genesis.   
The early Chinese characters are different from what they are today, although some still resemble them.   You can see clearly the connection with Genesis, showing that the Chinese had a connection with Genesis, possibly from the tower of Babel.  Their history goes back longer than most other nations.

Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church.  A.P. Stanley p56.
Ibid p57.
Diocletian’s persecution was for ten years – AD303-13.
AD250-251. › Catholic Encyclopaedia
The Catholic Encyclopaedia. Vol IV. Maurice Hassatt. Art Martyrs.

Chapter 2    The Barbarians  Greek -- βάρβαρος - barbarians
The Races of Ireland and Scotland by WC Mackenzie.
Look up Google –images scythian vases and artefacts
The Greek and Eastern Churches. Adeney p306.  Truth Triumphant p145.    They are referring to the Huns from Scythia or there-abouts.
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church p66. Malachi Martin.
Ibid p67.
Ibid p68.
Ibid. › Catholic Encyclopedia 
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church p68.69.    There is a movie called ‘Attila the Hun’.
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church p70.
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.  Gibbon, Ch. 35. Par. 16.   Encyclopaedia Britannica.  Art.  Goths  Par. 14.
Richard’s Encyclopaedia. Vol 5 p270.
Germania. 38.
Ferreiro, Alberto. Braga and Tours. Journal of Early Christian Studies. 3 (1995) p195–210.
Cassius Deo. 78.13.4.
Decline and Fall. Gibbon. Bk 3. Ch xxxviii. Par 12. Note 38   p218.
Ibid. The quotation actually relates to a much earlier council when they did the same thing.  Council of Saragossa.
The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World. G. Rawlinson MA  The Second Monarchy. Vol II. Ch 2. p221.   The law he is speaking about is somewhat strange, but it seems to me he is speaking about a law that the barbarians must (as if a law for them) begin to move across Europe.
Daniel and Revelation Appendix p132.1907. Uriah Smith.
Outlines of Prophecy. p15.
Horae Apocalypticae. E.B. Elliott. Vol. III. p. 152.153. 1862.  Facts of Faith p36.
Rev Bertrand L Conway. The Question Box Answers. p251.4.5.

Chapter 3    Four Cities
Truth Triumphant p45.
Josephus Jewish Wars 3.29.
Truth Triumphant.  B.G. Wilkinson. p46.
Eusebius, quoted in The Annals of the World. James Ussher. p822.
Jerome’s translation of the Eusebius Chronicles.   The Annals of the World. James Ussher p822. 
Truth Triumphant p48.
332-330BC. The lighthouse was eventually destroyed by earthquakes.    63BC0-AD21.
Unfortunately it was completely destroyed, leaving no ruins.

Ten years after Herod’s death, Judea came under direct Roman administration.   Augustus also means ‘the illustrious one’, or ‘the exalted one’, and can apply to all the Emperors.  You will notice that Constantine called himself an ‘Augustus’.

The library was destroyed over many generations by a number of conquerors, the last suggestion being the Arabian forces who prevailed in AD646 when Egypt fell under Islamic rule.  Churches were destroyed or transformed into mosques.   Legend claims it was at this time that the great library was burned by the Muslim conquerors.  Today there is no evidence of the library, except for the ruins of a smaller ‘daughter’ library built to house extra books the library could not contain.
Two Republics p215.216.
Ibid 216.
Early Egyptian Christianity. C. W. Griggs.    

Clement died AD220.
The Instructor. Bk ii. Ch 1.  Two Republics p 217.
 Johann L Mosheim. Ecclesiastical History. Vol 1. p218.  Two Republics p220.
Two Republics p218.9.    Origen died AD254.
Truth Triumphant p55.
This is the kind of history I was taught in elementary school in the 1950s, and I hated it.  When I learnt Bible history, I loved history.
Rome is not the only city of seven hills. p000201.htm
History Channel. February 2016.
The Rise of the Mediaeval Church.  Alexander Clarence Flick. p168.169. 1909.   Edict of Milan, an edict of toleration of Christians.
The Rise of the Papal Power.  Robert Hussey. p1. 1863.
Vatican Billions p32. Avro Manhatton.
Vatican Billions p34.35.
Doubts about it were not voiced until AD1000.  

In 1440, Lorenzo Valla proved that the Latin used in the document was not of the 4th century.
AD402-416.  Documents of the Christian Church. Henry Bettenson. Chris  Maunder p86.
After 1886 years, it still exists.

Greek was the spoken language in Constantinople, but Latin was the language of government, the Imperial language, of which Constantine spoke.

Chapter 8     After Nicaea      

Documents of the Christian Church p27. Henry Bettenson. Chris Maunder. Vita Constantini, IV, 36.
Vita Const. 4.36.37.   Ibid.
The document Codex Vaticanus  is found as Vat. gr. 1209;   No.B or 03 Gregory-Aland, δ 1 von Soden.  Some think the threefold and fourfold meant in columns.
The Canon and Text of the NT p345.

The numbering of this document is the result of a Caspar René Gregory (November 6, 1846 in Philadelphia – April 9, 1917 in a field hospital in Neuchâtel sur Aisne, France being the oldest volunteer soldier to fight in World War I—for Germany) who was a German-American theologian, and a Protestant.

Our Authorised Bible Vindicated. B.G. Wilkinson.
Introduction to Textual Criticism of the NT.   Dr A.T. Robertson.
An Understandable History of the Bible Samuel C Gipp. Point 39. 

Dean J.W. Burgon defended the Textus Receptus, the manuscripts that underlie the King James Bible.  A Society continues his work, called ‘The Dean Burgon Society’.  Burgon died in 1888.    Apologia ad Constantium 4.

Eusebius  may  not  have  been  the  only  one asked to prepare Bibles. Athanasius wrote in  AD340,  “I sent to him volumes containing the  holy Scriptures,  which  he  had ordered me to prepare for him.” 13  Another report said Athanasius made his Bibles for Constans, Constantine’s son.
Mount Sinai in Arabia.

This fits perfectly with the crossing site of the Red Sea, commencing at Nuweiba beach. This can be seen on satellite.  It goes straight across to the Saudi Arabia side where they continued their journey to Jebel el Lawz, the true Mount Sinai.   Look up more on this subject and you will be thrilled with what you find.  One site is  Another good site is:  AD336.
Two Republics p356.  Constantine and Eusebius. Timothy D. Barnes. p238.
Two Republics p355-359.  An Ecclesiastical History, Ancient and Modern: Vol 1. Johann L. Mosheim. Charles Coote. George Gleig. P126   Early Controversies and the Growth of Christianity . Kevin Kaatz p112.
Two Republics p356.
History of the Christian Religion and Church.  Neander.  Vol ii. Sec IV. Div ii. A. par 30. History of the Christian Church. F.J. Foakes-Jackson. P317.  Two Republics 356.   Services were held on both Sabbath and Sunday.
The bishop died two years later.
Two Republics p359.  A History of the Christian Church. F.J. Foakes-Jackson. P317.  History of Christianity. Milman. Bk iii. Ch iv. par 32 and note.

There are a number of traditions as to how Arius died. Some suggest poisoning.   Others suggest Arius died in a bathroom with bowel problems, forever putting him in a bad light. Some people make the most of it, saying that Emperor Constantine was waiting for him in a church ready to elevate him, but Arius did not turn up.  This latter  one  I  regard as  pure  fiction  from the book Arius the Libyan, although I have also  read  it  elsewhere in another  book  of  fiction.   It  is possible  he  did  die  in  a bathroom with bowel problems, after all, he had been exiled for many years, possibly in prison.  Some try to make it as dramatic as they can to put the man down. Said the historian, “Arius died suddenly and under strange circumstances.”  Gibbon said, “His bowels suddenly burst out in a privy”, the cause a choice “between poison and miracle.”

Two Republics p360.
Preserved in Eusebius of Caesarea’s Life of Constantine 4:9-13 and Theodoret’s Ecclesiastical History 1:24.
The History of the Medieval World. S.Wise Bauer. p31.
Life of Constantine Bk IV.Ch p62.63.

“Christians commonly postponed baptism until late in life to allow youthful lusts to cool and avoid risks of sin after baptism.”   The Text of the Bible: Its Path through History and to the People. David S. New p26.   Obviously they did not understand salvation, but I am sure God winked at their ignorance in those early days.

Life of Constantine Bk IV. p62.63.
Ibid. Ch 69.   
May 22 AD337.
Encyclopaedia Brittanica. Art. Constantine.  Two Republics p359.

Chapter 9   Arian versus Nicene          

I am indebted to A.T.Jones for his record of the history of this period.  He has received his information from reputable historians, but has made it very clear, telling it more like a story.   I have chosen certain parts for my chapter and at times, used his words to convey the details.  

Cardinal John Henry Newman has also written on the subject, giving detail after detail of the actions of the Arians from town to town, city to city.  This is all from a Catholic perspective, so it is always showing the actions of the Arians.  We do not have such records of the Nicenes, except in accounts of historians who are willing to tell it like it actually happened on both sides.  There is no question, both parties persecuted and acted like the devil himself.
Two Republics p360.   You will remember that Athanasius had been banished in the Council of Tyre.  See ‘After Nicaea’.
Eusebius of Nicomedia dies in AD342.
History of Christianity. Milman. Bk iii. V. Par 11. Two Republics p361.
Two Republics p361.   This is not the same Hermogenes as at the Council of Nicaea, as he was a deacon.
Two Republics p361.362.  Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Gibbons. Ch xxi. Par 36.  Socrates Ecclesiastical History. Bk ii. Ch xvi.  History of Christianity Bk iii. Ch v. par 18. 
Two Republics p360.  The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy AD318-382. R.P. Hanson.
Two Republics p360.  The Great Events by Famous Historians. Various Authors.   Ancient Rome. Williams E Dunstan. Ch 27.
Two Republics p360. 

There are many councils and it is hard to know what was passed at what, especially relating to the Arians.  The Catholic Church records councils relating to its own purposes, rather than to those they believe are heretics.   It have tried to place them in year order, but at times have not been sure when a new Arian creed was formulated.  Apologies if I have them wrong, but as I said in the Introduction, it is a general picture of the events that are important to the overall picture.

The Great Leap-Fraud: Social Economics of Religious Terrorism. Vol 1. p403. A.J. Deus.
Two Republics p360.  The Blackwell Companion to the Theologians. Vol 2 set. Ian S Markham. p29.
History of Christianity. Milman.  Bk iii. Ch v. par 9.  Two Republics p361.   
A Divided House:  The Scandal of Christendom. Rudy Lopez.
Milman.   History of Christianity. Bk iii. Ch iv. par 14.   Two Republics 363. Gibbon Ch xxi. Par 26. Entitled ‘And Restoration’ AD349.
Two Republics p366.
Two Republics p367.  History of the Popes. Bower. Liberius par 2.   Great Empires of Prophecy p526.
Two Republics p367.
Ibid p367. Great Empires of Prophecy p526. A.T. Jones.
Two Republics p368.
History of the Christian Councils. Hefele. Sec 74. Par 6.  Two Republics p368.
History of the Popes. Art Liberius par 6. Bower.  Two Republics p370.
History of the Popes. Bower. Liberius Par 19.  Two Republics p371.2. 
Two Republics p375.  It had been a long cold two years.
History of Christianity. Bk iii. Ch v. par 28.  Two Republics p371.372..
Two Republics p375.376.
Two Republics p376-382.  Point 11.
Sons of Hellenism, Fathers of the Church: Emperor Julian, Gregory… Susanna

Elm p45,46.,_Athanasius,_De_synodis_Arimini_in_Italia_et_Seleuciae_in_Isauria_[Schaff],_EN.pdf  p938-944/
Two Republics p378. History of the Church Councils. Charles Joseph Hefele. Sec 82.   This gives a good report of the two councils.
Two Republics p379.280. 

These two councils Rimini (Ariminum) and Seleucia are mentioned in a number of places as a ‘double council’, however, the details shown in this book are from ‘Two Republics’, which gives a good account.  Obviously some of it is sanctified imagination to make it live for the reader, rather than plain facts. 

Two Republics p379.
Two Republics p381. Bower. History of the popes. Liberius par 24.25.  Great Empires of Bible Prophecy p538.   I do not know why it says ‘twenty bishops’ as only ten went to see Constantius and there were hundreds still at the hall.
Two Republics p381.  (There are a number of variations, all using adjectives such as groaned, lamenting, marvelled, but the sentiments are the same)
The Sacred Writings of Socrates Scholasticus (Extended Annotated Edition. By Socrates Scholasticus. No page number.
Socrates Scholasticus. Bk II. Ch 41. P221.222. Quoted by

Public domain

Nicaea and the World

Chapter 12     Churches of the East        

We must be reminded that the love of Jesus in the heart will not produce a life of hell for other people.   Jesus said He came to bring a sword, but the strife is not from the true believers who loves and lives for Jesus.
Truth Triumphant p58.
Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church p81. 
The Methodist Quarterly Review.  1862. p536. › Catholic Encyclopaedia
Dogma Evolution & Papal Fallacies. Irma Penn.  p262.  Charlemagne called a council relating to the filioque. Leo forbad its use in Western liturgy.
Truth Triumphant p94.95.
The Four Councils. J.W.C. Wand. p12.
History of  the World Christian Movement. Vol 1. p178. Dale T Irvin. Scott Sonquist.   The Great Leap-Fraud:  Social Economics of Religious Terrorism. Vol 1. p403. A.J. Deus.  The First Great Christian Creed. J.A. Faulkner. p53.
Gruner N. Priest. Part II FATIMA: Roadblocks and Breakthroughs. The Fatima Crusader 110, Fall 2014, p. 48.  Quoted by Bob Thiel.   The first Christian Creed. J.A. Faulkner p53.
The Syriac Church and Fathers p49.  Truth Triumphant p59.
Ecclesiastical History bk 5. Ch 22. p289. 1892.  Facts of Faith. p83.  Early Spring of Christianity. Mingana. Vol 10. p460.  Socrates was born in Constantinople in AD380.  He wrote a history of the Church in seven volumes from Constantine – AD305 – AD445.

This last book says they stretched from Palestine to India, as in previous paragraph, including Ireland and Scotland.  Truth Triumphant p95.  “The Egyptians in the neighbourhood of Alexandria and the inhabitants of Thebais hold their religious meetings on the Sabbath.”   Eccles History Bk 5. Ch22 p289. Socrates.

In Africa -- The Sabbath was kept by a tribe in Guyana after one of the older men had a dream of a shining man telling him of the seventh-day Sabbath.  He said a man would come with a black book.  When he arrived years later, they were keeping the seventh-day of the week. To know which day was the Sabbath, they tied knots in a string, and every seventh-day they stopped work and worshipped God.  Also, in the Ashanti culture, the seventh-day Sabbath had been ingrained in their culture.  As far as they can remember, it was always the Sabbath day.  

In Ethiopia, the Kwazulu kept the 7th day Sabbath.  

In Alaska, Maniiliq had a dream of an old man who told him of the Father and the Son, and to keep the seventh-day holy.   Maniiliq told his people “Grandfather”, who they knew meant God, told him they must keep the seventh-day as a holy day and do no work.  So his people would know which day was the Sabbath, Maniiliq put a pole in front of his tent every seventh-day and the people knew it was the day of no work.  

The Tai Ping Revolution in China was due to one man having a dream of the seventh-day Sabbath.  He told the people, “It is our heavenly Father’s day”.  He put a flag up in the village on the 6th day so the people would know the next day was the Sabbath.

The Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen. Vol 2. p390.  Philip Schaff.  Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.  Sozomen was born at the beginning of the 5th century.  He practised law in Constantinople.
Due to Constantine’s Sunday laws
Dialogues on the Lord’s Day.  Dr T.H. Morer. p189. 1701. A Church of England divine
Antiquities of the Christian Church. Vol II. Bo XX. Ch 3. Sec 1 66.1137.1138.   The Works of the Learned Bingham. Vol 2. Joseph Bingham p298.  Catholic website.
Athanasius to mention one.
Development of Christian Doctrine. p371.378. 1878.   (Catholic book)

“The Christianisation of urban space was complemented by a corresponding Christianisation of time: it was in Rome, during Constantine’s reign, that the birth of Jesus Christ was first celebrated on 25 December, the date of the pagan feast commemorating the birth of the sun god (sol invictus). The new feast spread and, by AD386, it had arrived in Antioch.  Moreover, the Christian year was now filled with the dies natales of Roman martyrs.   By the mid-fifth century, Rome had become a Christian city that attracted pilgrims from all the empire and beyond.    The pagan city of the mythical founder twins Romulus and Remus had become the Christian city of the apostles and martyrs Peter and Paul, joined in concord. Rome’s transformation from pagan to Christian city set the precedent for other cities in Italy, Gaul and Africa.”  

The Catholic World. March 1894 p809/.
Catholic Press. Sydney. Australia. August 1900

“Like two sacred rivers flowing from Paradise, the Bible and divine Tradition contain the Word of God, the precious gems of revealed Truth.  Though these two divine streams are in themselves, on account of their divine origin, of equal sacredness, and are both full of revealed truths, still, of the two, tradition is to us more clear and safe.”  Joseph Faa di Bruno.  Catholic Belief p45. 1884. From Sabbath Rest. Kevin Morgan p60.

The Catholic World. June. 1871. p589.
Ecclesiastical History bk 5. Ch 22. p289. 1892.  Facts of Faith. p83.

“Reason and common sense demand the acceptance of one of the other of these alternatives:  either Protestantism and the keeping of Saturday, or Catholicity and the keeping of Sunday.  Compromise is impossible.”  Abram Herbert Lewis. DD.  ‘Catholic Proof’. Catholic Mirror. Dec 23. 1893.

Antiquities of the Christian Church. Joseph Bingham. Vol II. Bk XX ch 3. Sec 1 pp1137.1138. 1852.  Or same book ch 3. p43.  Facts of Faith p85. › Fathers of the Church  
Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. Philip Schaff, quoting Neander p183.  The Synod of Laodicea.
The Decline of the Roman Church p94.
Ibid. › Rights & Customs
The Pope and the Patriarch have been meeting together and plan to continue to celebrate certain festivals together.

“During the Soviet Union era, thousands of churches were destroyed and millions of Christians were persecuted. Communist textbooks called religion 'the opium of the people' and Christianity 'a perverse reflection on the world.'  In the 24 years since the fall of the Soviet Union, however, Orthodox Christianity has made an astonishing recovery. While only a third of Russians identified as Orthodox in 1991, over two thirds now identify as Russian Orthodox Christians.  Yet the rise of the Orthodox Church hasn't brought religious liberty to Russia.  It has simply replaced the Communist Party as the ideological state apparatus used to forcibly unite Russians!    In return for public support from Russian Orthodox clergy, President Vladimir Putin attends church services and portrays himself as a defender of 'Christian values.'  Like the Byzantine emperors and Russian czars before him, he is using a de facto state religion to unify his empire!” › Archives Index › The Trinity
Fundamentals of Catholicism: God, Trinity, Creation, Christ, Mary.  Kenneth Baker p82.83.
History of the Christian Church Vol VII. ch 3. Sec 55.

Chapter 13     Go ye Therefore         

The compiler of the records shown on the archive site ( states the following:  “In English I do not know of any book which deals directly with either Ulfilas or the Gothic Churches.  In German the works of Aschback, Krafft, Pallmann and Helfferich are all more or less closely concerned with these subjects.  In French there are Maimbourg and Revillout dealing with them from the side of the history of Arianism…  Our actual information regarding the life and labours of Ulfilas is still very limited.  Of original sources there are probably not more than three.  Of his translation large portions are still lacking.  I cannot help cherishing a hope that there is lying buried in some nook of Germany, Italy or Spain, yet to come to light, some further record of the great spiritual father of the Goths.”   

The site address as shown above, is correct, but it does not come up if you put it in.  You have to put ‘The Full Text of A Comparative Glossary of the Gothic Language…’
Or go to:   The site was placed on the internet by the Internet Archive in 2007, funded from IVIicrosoft (sic) Corporation. (Microscoft?)  A preface by Prof Francis A March. LLD.LH.D. The Author’s name is not given, but he has taken the whole site from ancient historians. It was entered according to act of congress in 1887 by G.H. Balg. 

All the details on Wulfila have been taken from a site by a brother who has gathered  everything available in the languages he could  understand. 

The History of the Byzantine Empire. Alexander Vaseliev p85.
Ecclesiastical History. Philostorgius. ii. 5.   Ibid
Basil. Mag Ej) 70. ed Migne.   Ibid –
Sozomon. Ecclesiastical History. Kraft. p213. 
Some historians say he was sent as a hostage, others as an ambassador.   One says his parents felt he needed to learn more from Auxentius.
Also spelt Ulfilas and Ulphilas.
He is also called Auxentius of Milan.
Lit sup p33. Bessoll. p1 seq 2MS fol 281. 
The Barbarian Conversion: From Paganism to Christianity. Richard A Fletcher. p73.
Dahn. Konige. ii. 84.92; v 1 seq.   Athanaric is the name given by many historians, but others doubt the name.
MS ed Waitz.
Philostorgius. Ecclesiastical History. II 5.
This is not definite and only reported by one writer
Early History of the Goths p16 (33). 
Krafft. P370.  Tacitus. German c 40.
Truth Triumphant p144.
Truth Triumphant p141.
Athanasius History. 
Readings in Early Anthropology.  James S Slotkin p18. Quoted Augustine.
Story taken from archives.

The historian spoken of is from the very lengthy archive site above, of which it is not possible to find his name again, without hours of reading through.  The site is excellent, but reading is arduous.  p166. (183)

Compare the record of an army of over 40,000 Spaniards, Germans and Italians that marched into Rome in the 1520s with the Gothic armies that marched into Rome once they had become Christians. “The Imperial army… male and female – fell upon the city; and the looting, the pillage, the murder, the suffering which went on for about ten days was indescribable. They went methodically from house to house, killing the men and children and old people, raping the young women, taking all the gold and silver and valuables, slaughtering all the orphans and nuns in the eleven orphanages together with all horses, donkeys, and mules in Rome. Every church was plundered and set on fire.  No monk was spared. No nun was not raped several times before being killed. The survivors were sold in the Piazza of “St Peter’s as slaves. Any cardinal or bishop they found  was  stripped  naked,  dragged  through  the  streets  at the  end  of  a rope, then thrown into prison to be ransomed heavily.  The tombs of the popes were opened and rifled…  Every day there were more hangings, floggings, beheadings, burnings, rapes.”  The Decline of the Roman Church p212.213.

The Greek and Eastern Churches. Adeney. p306.  Truth Triumphant p145.
The Ancient World: Dictionary of World Biography. Vol 1. p1196. Edited by Frank N Magill.

Of his Gothic Bible, a Catholic writer stated.  “At the hands of Catholic revisionists Wulfila’s Bible fared no better than did the facts of history… So the Gothic Bible was cleaned up by busy Catholic hands, any indication of Arian theology ‘corrected’.  Today no sign of Arianism can be found in the Silver Codex.” The Text of the Bible David S New p24.

However, this is disputed by others.   “The Gothic Bible retained and translated these passages exactly the same (as the Latin translation) apparently without any concern for how it might affect their theology.”  Arianism: Roman Heresy and Barbarian Creed. Dr Guido M Berndt. Dr Rolland Steinacher p180.

Catholic Salvian made many accusations, but these are refuted by others.  “Salvian rejects the Gothic Bible because the sacred text has been tampered with in a number of different ways.  It does not seem likely that Salvian’s command of Gothic – in any – was good enough to enable him to analyse Ulfila’s Bible.  More likely he relied on the judgment of others or simply rejected it because of its Arian associations.”  Gothic Bible, Vetus Latina and Visigothic Law Evidence for a Septuagint-based Gothic Version of Exodus.     Salvaian said that an Arian was “a fate worse than being a pagan, and at best misguided.”  Salvian Book 5.

Another critics was Ambrose.  He claimed the Arians had deleted the clause quia deus spiritus est.  Bruce Longenecker stated, “Today however, this clause is found in only five Old Latin mms. And one Vulgate ms. And cannot be regarded as original.    So it is not the case that Arians deleted anything.  John never wrote this, and it is Ambrose (with Hilary) who has based his argument on a strand of the textual tradition contaminated by orthodox interpolation with a pre-Arian history.”  The Holy Spirit and Christian Origins:  Essays in Honour of James. Bruce W Longenecker. Stephen C Barton p342.
The Ancient World. Vol 1. p1196.
Goths in the Fourth Century. Heather and Matthews. p143.  The last few sentence are fragmentary, but have been completed by Auxentius who knew his beliefs.   Archives.
The Text of the Bible: Its Path through History and to the People.  David S. New p24.
Arianism: Roman Heresy and Barbarian Creed. Edited by Dr Guido M Berndt. Dr Roland Steinacher. p312.
The Text of the Bible: Its Path through History and to the People.  David S. New p24. 
Text paraphrased to fit the tense.

Arian doxology:    Praise God from whom all blessings flow, Praise Him all creatures here below.  Praise above ye heavenly hosts, Praise to the Father through the Son, in the Holy Ghost.”


Even though Constantinople was in a more strategic position than old Rome, the reigning Emperors still sustained numberless sieges.  After being considerably weakened by many invasions and finally cut off from surrounding neighbours by the Turks, Constantinople was officially conquered by the Ottoman Empire in May 1453.
 Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. A.P.Stanley p31.

Chapter 4    Constantine     

Diocletian began to reign in AD284 when Constantine was 12 years old. 
Galerius ruled under Diocletian from AD305-11.
Documents of the Christian Church. Henry Bettenson. p21.22.\

The Chi Rho  is formed by superimposing the first two (capital) letters chi and rho (ΧΡ) of the Greek word "ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ" = Christ, in such a way to produce the monogram. Widespread in ancient Christianity, it was the symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as vexillum (named Labarum).

The Staurogram (meaning monogram of the cross, from Greek σταυρός, (i.e.cross) is composed of a tau (Τ) superimposed on a rho (Ρ). The Staurogram was first used to abbreviate the Greek word for cross in very early New Testament manuscripts and may visually have represented Jesus on the cross.    The Monogrammatic Cross was later seen also as a variation of the Chi Rho symbol, and it spread over Western Europe in the 5th and 6th centuries.

During the early centuries, Christians did not use the symbol of the cross, an upright beam with a cross bar, as they regarded it as abhorrent, a device for killing.  The first cross used was in the mid-5th century on a Vatican sarcophagus.  It was a Greek cross with equal arms.   The crucifixion scene did not appear in Christian art until the 7th century.

Life of Constantine.  Bk IV. Ch. XX.
Documents of the Christian Church p17.
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church p16. Malachi Martin.
The Decline of the Roman Church p59. Malachi Martin.
In the 15th century it fell into ruin and was completely reconstructed to become what it is today.
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church p39.40. Malachi Martin.
Codex Justinianus. lib. 3. tit. 12, 3. trans. in Philip Schaff. History of the Christian Church. Vol. 3 (5th ed. 1902), p380, note 1.
Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History.  Bk 1. Ch VIII.   AD314.
The Penny Cyclopaedia for the Society of the Diffusion of … Vol 23-24.  p292.
Neander. p476. Id. sec iii. pt ii. div iii par 2.

Quoted by S. R. E. Humbert, Adversus Graecorum calumnias 6. in Patrologie Cursus Completus. Series Latina. ed. J.P. Migne. 1844. p143.   Lucinius was the husband of Constantine’s sister, Constantia. › Catholic Encyclopaedia  

Chapter 5      Arius    
Arius the Libyan p16.

After Bishop Peter was martyred, Alexander and Arius were both nominees for the bishopric. Arius declined in favour of the elder Alexander.  From historian Philostorgius Bk 1. Ch3. Quoted in The History of the First Council. By Dean Dudley. Footnote p39. › Categories › Church History
Two Republics p333.
Ibid. p333. From Theodoret’s Ecclesiastical History. Bk 1. Ch iv. 

These statements of Arius that the “Son is from nothing” are difficult for us to understand, but  we  must  remember  he  was  dealing  with  many  issues that were
relevant at the time.  Some said the Son was an ‘emission’, others an ‘effusion’, and we don’t understand these either.  Some spoke of Him as what appears to be a ‘clone’, although they did not use that word.  As Arius is so far removed from us we cannot understand everything he said.,_Athanasius,_De_synodis_Arimini_in_Italia_et_Seleuciae_in_Isauria_[Schaff],_EN.pdf   p947-950.  

Further information has come to hand on the above by Arius.  “God, being the cause of all things, is Unbegun and altogether Sole, but the Son being begotten apart from time by the Father, and being created and founded before ages, was not before His generation, but being begotten apart from time before all things, alone was made to subsist by the Father. For He is not eternal or co-eternal or co-unoriginate with the Father, nor has He His being together with the Father, as some speak of relations, introducing two ungenerate beginnings, but God is before all things as being Monad (a single unit) and Beginning of all.  Wherefore also He is before the Son; as we have learned also from thy preaching in the midst of the Church. So far then as from God He has being, and glories, and life, and all things are delivered unto Him, in such sense is God His origin. For He is above Him, as being His God and before Him. For He is above Him, as being His God and before Him.   But if the terms ‘from Him,’ and ‘from the womb,’ and ‘I came forth from the Father, and I am come, be understood by some to mean as if a part of Him, one in essence or as an issue, then the Father is according to them compounded and divisible and alterable and material, and, as far as their belief goes, has the circumstances of a body, Who is the Incorporeal God.”,_Athanasius,_De_synodis_Arimini_in_Italia_et_Seleuciae_in_Isauria_[Schaff],_EN.pdf   p947-950.

When Arius says ‘he is not eternal’, he is meaning ‘with no beginning’ like the Father. The latter half of the above is enlightening about the Father.  Arius believed, and we assume they all believed, as do the Anglicans today, that God has no body.  Quoting from  the  Anglican  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  “There  is  but  on living and true God,everlasting, without body, parts, or passions:  of infinite power, wisdom and goodness…”  p376.  Thus Arius believed that the Son was begotten by some other means other than issuing from His Father.  Obviously there were questions he could not answer, based on a wrong foundation in the belief system of Christians at the time.

Chapter 10   Rome Rises             

Again, some of the information has been taken from A.T. Jones, however, much research has come from other sources.

History of the Christian Church. Philip Schaff. No page.
Two Republics p383.  The Blackwell Companion to the Theologians. Vol 2 set. I.S. Markham. p29.
Early Latin Theology: Sections from Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose and Jerome. Edited by Stanley L. Greenslade. p200.
Two Republics p384-387.   Decline and Fall. Gibbons Ch xxv. Par 18.
Two Republics p388-402.
Two Republics p388.  Decline and Fall. Gibbons Ch xxvii. Par 6.  
Two Republics p394.
Gregory is called Gregory Nazianzus, Nazianzum, Nazianzen.
Two Republics p395.  History of the Popes. Archibald Bower. Vol 1 p220.
Cambridge Ancient History. Vol 13. Edited by Averil Cameron. Peter Garnsey. p579
The Macedonians left the assembly Two Republics p395.396.   Ronald Hanko.
History of the Church Councils. Hefele.  Sec 97. Quoted in Two Republics p396.
Cambridge Ancient History. Vol 13. Edited by Averil Cameron. Peter Garnsey. p579.   Two Republics p 395. Scholars disagree as to why Gregory resigned from the council.
Ibid sec 98.  Ibid.  The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon.  Vol 1. Richard Price. Michael Gaddis p50.  Great Empires of Bible Prophecy p552.
History of the Church Councils. Hefele.  Sec 97. Quoted in Two Republic
s p396.

“Rome stridently opposed canon 28, which – citing canon 3 of the Council of Constantinople  (381) – attempted  to  establish  Constantinople,  the New Rome, on an equal footing with the Old Rome, on the grounds that both were capitals and imperial residences. For Rome, the authority of its bishop was based on the pope’s being the successor and, indeed, deputy (vicarius) of the apostle Peter. Pope Leo insisted on canon 6 of the Council of Nicaea, which he interpreted as confirming the unique position of his own See.”  p16.
Ibid sec 98.  Ibid p396.  The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon.  Vol 1. Richard Price. Michael Gaddis p50.  Great Empires of Bible Prophecy p552.
Great Empires of Bible Prophecy. A.T. Jones p522.  Two Republics p397.
Ibid. p553.
Two Republics p399.  History of the Eastern Church. A Stanley. Lect 2. P74. from end.  The Great Empires of Prophecy. A.T. Jones. p552.

St. Gregory writes: “If I must speak the truth, I feel disposed to shun every conference of Bishops: for never saw I Synod brought to a happy issue, and remedying, and not rather aggravating, existing evils. For rivalry and ambition are stronger than reason—do not think me extravagant for saying so—and a mediator is more likely to incur some imputation himself than to clear up the imputations which others lie under.”—Ep. 129.

Two Republics p399.
Decline and Fall.  Gibbon Vol 5. Chapter 27. p31.   Ibid.
Decline and Fall. Ch 27. p22.23. Gibbon
Two Republics p400.  Great Empires of Prophecy p555. Two Republics p401.
Two Republics p401.
Ibid. p400.
The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Kelly p35.  Quoted in The Bishop of Rome in Late Antiquity. Revd Dr Geffrey D Dunn p84.
History of the Lombards. Paul the Deacon. p122.
History of Latin Christianity. Milman.  Bk ii. Ch iv. Par 2.  Roman Letters: History from a Personal Point of View.  Finley Hooper. Matthew Schwartz. p290.

“The popes filled the vacant place of the emperors of Rome, inheriting their power, prestige, and titles from paganism.”  History of the Church p40.  “The office of Pontifex Maximus continued in that of the pope.”  A.C.Flick. The Rise of the Medievil Church. p150.  1909.  
Two Republics p452. 
Two Republics p455-475.
Ibid p480.  Ecclesiastical Empire p182.
Present Truth. Oct 7. 1897 p628
Questions and Answers by His Grace Bishop Youssef". suscopts.

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church p127  

The red velvet cushion was not in the early centuries, but a later invention.  It meant suffocation. One very common method of getting rid of people was to poison them.  Italians know this and when Pope John Paul I died within a month, everyone in Italy knew he had been poisoned.  Malachi Martin has written a number of fictional stories about the Catholic Church, but all the details, apart from the story line, are fact.  The above book was a documentary.

The Catholic Church did terrible things to their own people.  When a new pope was to be elected in the 13th century, it was the cardinals who were responsible.  “Senator Matteo Rosso Orsini, the most powerful layman in the papal organization… had the cardinals brutalized by his own men.  Each cardinal was tied hand and foot, flung to the ground in the presence of eyewitnesses, struck and beaten as if he was a thief and a felon, stomped on by the soldiery, and abused with foul language... as a military boot ground his face into the mud.  Untied, the cardinals were then thrown bodily into the main hall…  Matteo ordered the doors of this one big room locked, its windows block up.  No one was allowed to enter or to leave.  Armed guards were posted all around the outer walls and on the roof.  The senator gave public orders to kill on sight anyone who tried to get in or out.  He then commanded the ten cardinals to get on with it and pick a new pope.  The first genuine conclave had begun.

The living conditions were abominable. There were a few chairs and benches, some broken-down cots, insufficient bedclothes.  No exceptions were made for the sick or the ailing or the very old cardinals. They lay around the floor among the healthy.  No doctors were allowed in.,.  No special food was permitted. Primitive latrines were provided inside the hall, but they were not emptied until a pope was chosen… No hot water, no change of personal clothing or of bed sheets.  The summer heat was still at its height, and the air inside the room was humid and fetid with odors.

When one cardinal started to die, he was hastily stuffed into a long box while still breathing,  and  he  listened  while  the  other  cardinals  sung  over him the Latin hymns which were normal chanted at the funeral service after death…”  The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church p156.   It would take weeks before they could elect a pope;  it was very complex.  Sometimes the roof was taken off in the heat of the Summer under the above conditions.  If they did not elect a pope soon enough, the senator “would dig up a recently buried pope and put the cadaver in the middle of their hall.  They could live, sleep, eat, talk, while they looked on and smelled the cadaver decay.  If they still persisted in evading their responsibilities, he concluded, he would kill them all.” p157.  This experience was not rare, but happened often, until later years.  This is the nature of the Antichrist, and if they do this to their own, we can understand why God speaks so much of this power in the Bible.  Read Revelation 17:4.5.6. of the “woman” and you will be reading the history of Papal Rome.  Also read Revelation 18. This whole chapter pictures Papal Rome.   Everything about Rome is false, everything.

Chapter 11    Papal Victories              

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church p81.82.  Malachi Martin.

Malachi Martin, served three popes as diplomat and spy, spoke seventeen languages, was a renowned Biblical scholar and a professor at Rome’s Pontifical Biblical Institute.  He suddenly disappeared, believed murdered.    We assume he is referring to the prophetic period of 1260 years until the power it became and is today.

Ibid p79.
Encyclopaedia Metropolitana; or, Universal Dictionary of… Vol 11. Edited by Edward Smedley. Hugh James Rose. Henry John Rose. p286   Some spell her name Clotilda, some Clotilde.

Baptism during those days was immersion for everyone, including babies.  They did not have hot water, so the water was very cold.   They immersed little babies in cold water and many of them died.   Gradually they changed their ideas until sprinkling became the method used.  This saved the lives of many babies, but the true method was lost, especially when it should only be consenting adults, or at least those able to make a personal decision for Christ.
The Papacy. Wylie. p40.
The History of the Later Roman Empire. Vol. VII. p500. J.B. Bury.
The Beginning of the Middle Ages. Church p38.39.
History of Latin Christianity.  Milman.  Bk 3. Ch 2. Par 28. p353.  Two Republics p526.
Decline and Fall. Gibbon. Bk 3. Ch xxxviii. Par 11. Note 46. From Gregory of Tours.   Two Republics p527.
Walter C. Perry. The Franks. p88. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 11th ed. art. Clovis.  Vol. VI. p563.
The Franks from their First Appearance in History. Walter C Perry. p97.
History of the Latin Church. Milman. bk iii. ch 2, par 29.p528.    Cod I.i.5.  
The Cambridge Medieval History. Vol 2. p4-20.
Prophetic Faith of our Fathers.  L. Froom. Vol 1. p507. 
Prophetic Faith of our Fathers. Vol I. Froom p509.
Ibid.    (The seat of kings was actually no longer Rome, but Ravenna, 457 kilometres (366 miles) north of Rome.
Ecclesiastical Empire.  A.T. Jones. p187.  Decline and Fall.  Gibbon. Vol 6. Ch 36. p234.  
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Vol 3. p5. Edward Gibbon.
The Ruin of the Roman Empire.  James J O’Donnell. p66. Alternate words ‘my friends’ or ‘my people’.  The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Vol 3. p7. Edward Gibbon.

Certainly others were employed to do the work, such as the Imperial power of Justinian and Belisarius.  Sadly, Theodoris an Ostrogoth, was used to attack and gain victory over the Heruli, but we must remember that he was fulfilling a command of Emperor Zeno and the Bishop of Rome.
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1990 ed. Art Heruli.
An Essay on Development of Christian Doctrine. Part II. p320. 1878.

History of the Word by Ridpath. Vol 4.l Ch 74. Gibbon’s Roman Empire. Ch 39 and 40.    Pontiff in the above is the pope, who employed the State to conquer them.
History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy.  Nicollo Machiavelli. p13. Universal Classics Library. 1901.
Italy and Her Invaders. Hodgkin. Vol 1. Pt 2. P931.932.  Truth Triumphant p146.   Note the different spelling Gaiseric.
A History of the Vandals.  Torsten Cumberland.
It is also said that five million Africans died in Justinian’s wars.
History of Greece.  George Finlay, the Scottish historian.  Vol I. p232.
C. W. Previté-Orton, Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, 4th edition, University Press 1953, Volume 1, p. 189.
Nelson's Encyclopaedia. Vol. XII.  Art. Vandals.
Encylopaedia Brittanica. 1963 edition. Vol 22. p973.
Gibbon. Ch xxxix. Par 14.
History of the Latin Church.  Milman. Bk iii. Ch iii. Par 11.
The Government of God. Salvian.   Quoted in Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity?  John Drinkwater. Hugh Elton p277.      The Government of God. Salvian. Bk 7. p189
The Story of Europe.  H.E. Marshall.
Answers to Objections Source Book.  Heidi Heiks. Ch 11.  Ecclesiastical Empire p206.  Truth Triumphant p147.
Italy and Her Invaders. 1899. Vol 4. p250.
Ridpath's History of the World, Vol. IV, pp. 408-417.
Encyclopaedia Americana. Vol.3.  p502
Encyc. Britannica. Ed 1990.  Goths. 
A History of the Ostrogoths. Thomas S Burns. p215.219.
Italian historian Chris Wickham. 
The Question Box Answers. p255.  Rev. Bertrand L. Conway. 1910.
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Gibbon. Vol 6. p448. Quoted in Setting History Straight. Linda Watson p28.